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Discussion Starter · #842 ·
I wasn't sure where to find the Molytex EP grease locally. I wanted to get it done so I can focus on other things. I think the moly EP mixture I made is very similar.
 

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Discussion Starter · #843 ·
It looks like the Molytex EP 00 does have ZDDP in it according to the SDS. The grease I used has
antimony dithiocarbamate (SbDTC) instead. I guess that's fine.
 

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Discussion Starter · #844 ·
I was impressed that I finally figured out how to install the angled dash fascia trim piece, but then I noticed it wouldn't go up flush against the vent levers. I thought are there different levers that fit the 99-01 fascia? The parts catalogue says no. They only changed them for 02+ with the totally revised dash. Land Rover just didn't cut out the holes to fit them. I guess they figured I would have more fun doing it myself. :)

 

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Discussion Starter · #845 · (Edited)
I decided to go a slightly different direction with this project. I think I was making it needlessly complicated with the M54, so I got this S52 to rebuild, which of course is a standard M52 bored and stroked to 3.2 liters. I was comparing dyno charts and the S52 has more torque throughout the power band than the M54b30. I was under the impression the dual vanos on the M54 improves torque, and it does, but it doesn't help it win against higher displacement.



 

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Somewhere there is an e30 owner lamenting that the S52 is going in a defender. :)

The local kids (ok they are in their 20s) S52 swap e30 in a weekend. I don’t think any of them has paid $3-5k for one as theyusually buy wrecked cars to get them.
 

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Discussion Starter · #847 ·
Haha probably. E30 guys talked me into going with the S52 over the M54, but I think they assumed I was planning to drop it into my E30. :)

I thought about trying to source a donor car, but I already have a couple parts cars I need to get rid of so I don't need another one sitting around here. They often get bid up pretty high still, but I guess if you're able to part out the rest you could make out pretty well.
 

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Discussion Starter · #848 · (Edited)
Here are some dyno graphs. I hope it's okay I'm borrowing them from here.

The first one is a M54b30. It shows the difference with a performance tune, so we can look at the blue line for the stock tune. That should be similar to what I was originally planning for the Defender. Notice how there's a dip in torque at about 4000 rpms. I've seen that on all the M54 dyno charts I've looked at so far. I'm thinking it must start rising again when the engine adjusts the dual VANOS to favor high rpm power.



This next one is for an S52 with M50 manifold (red line) vs. stock with M52/S52 manifold (blue line). Notice how it has more torque at lower RPM than the M54. At 2500 rpm it's producing about 200 ft-lbs, whereas the M54 is producing about 165 ft-lbs. The M54 does catch up at about 3500 rpms, but then it starts losing torque till about 4100 rpms and then doesn't catch up again. It looks like the M50 manifold helps the S52 at high RPM, but doesn't seem to do much for it at lower RPM, and makes it suffer a little in the mid-range, so I think the stock M52/S52 manifold will be good for the Defender since it will mostly be driven in the lower RPM range.



The next one is for a stock S54 and I'm including it because someone shared they swapped one into a Defender, but they said the torque wasn't good. So they replaced it with an M54 and said it was much better. However, I don't see that from the dyno graphs. There must have been something wrong with their engine because the S54 starts out strong. At 2500 rpms it's producing about 12 to 20 ft-lbs more than the S52 and about 50 ft-lbs more than the M54. It about equals out with the S52 at about 4000 rpms. So you can see where the dual VANOS is helpful. It's infinitely variable on that engine so that must be why you don't see the dip like on the M54. If you added the M54's dual VANOS to the S52 the result would be very similar to the S54, except for the small dip. That would require the more advanced engine management though and I want to keep it simple. I think the S52 is a good middle ground.

 

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Discussion Starter · #849 ·
As I'm sure you're aware, the bulk of this project has been repairing corrosion. Replacing, refinishing, cleaning, galvanizing, etc. And the engine conversion is actually a rather minor element. Nevertheless, it was starting to become too custom for my taste, so now my mission is to finish it as close to a production 2.8i as possible with the only significant differences being the slight increase in engine displacement and left-hand drive, besides the addition of the few emissions parts necessary for North America. After I get the engine rebuilt the next and last major part is the exhaust.

I found photos of the original 2.8i exhaust and there are some rough sketches of it in the M52 Defender parts catalogue from Land Rover SA, so those should be helpful in making a reproduction. The catalytic converters are normal BMW parts, but the 2.8i muffler is a unique part. It has 2 inlets and a single outlet, which is unusual and hard to find in the aftermarket. I was planning to use a merge collector to combine the two pipes into one and use a single inlet muffler, but there isn't a lot of space for that between the muffler and cats along with the two flanges, so I think it would be better to use a muffler that resembles the original. There are some universal mufflers that have two pipes on one side, but they are mostly for sideways installation, such as on a Chevy Camaro, with one inlet on one side and an outlet on both sides. The straight through mufflers like the ones from Magnaflow would be fine I think since they are reversible, but those may also be kind of noisy. I really want one that is quiet and doesn't drone. So after some research online I discovered the muffler for a late 90s Suburban is a very close match to the 2.8i muffler. It has dual 2" inlets (stock BMW piping is 50mm) and a single 2.75" outlet, which should fit nicely over 2.5" piping out the back. There might be a better match hiding somewhere, but the exhaust manufacturers don't make it easy to search for non-universal mufflers by specs. The original 2.8i muffler is stainless, and aluminized steel would be fine, but the Quiet-Flow from Walker is stainless so I went with that. It's part number 21291. I hope it will be quiet. Maybe that's helpful for anyone looking to replace an original 2.8i muffler.

I also found out recently there is a rather large heat shield that goes above the exhaust pipe on the right hand side of the truck under the floor. It's not listed in any parts catalogue I've seen. I saw it in photos on someone's Instagram who's rebuilding a 2.8i in New Zealand. It should be easy enough for me to make a heat shield. It appears to bolt to the upper bolts on the gearbox crossmember.
 

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Discussion Starter · #850 ·
Here's the muffler. It looks like a close match to the original. The Walker part numbers include 21291, 21504, and 21289 for Suburban, Tahoe/Yukon, and Escalade. The difference is the exhaust hanger, which needs to be changed for the Defender anyways.







Original:
 

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Discussion Starter · #851 · (Edited)
A while back I bought a new alternator, but it has a duct on it that won't work because the inner wing goes there. The 2.8i came with a unique alternator and I don't know what it looks like exactly. So I was going to get another alternator without a duct, but then I was looking over the parts catalog and it looked like the cap from a Z4 alternator would fit on this one since they're both Bosch. So I ordered it and it fits! The main B+ post was too long though so I cut it to fit. I also found a freewheeling clutch pulley that fits this alternator so I'll make that upgrade. It's INA EA0012.



 

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This is a great thread and I have followed this with great admiration, thanks a lot for sharing your knowledge.

Now, I'm in the process of putting a BMW M54 Engine with Auto Trans from an X5 into my LRD110, I'm fine on the Mechanical side of things but completely dazed on the Electrical side of the show; I will be getting help from someone with a significantly more electrical wiring know-how than I but I will like to check and guide him as necessary to avoid screwing up something.

I got a matching ECU, EWS and Key and Ring from a donor vehicle, complete Engine wire harness and the Coil Pack wires, plus a bunch of wiring loom that has been cut out from the donor vehicle, the Fuse Box from the glove compartment with the wires cut short. This is where I keep scratching my head as I can't seem to fully comprehend what goes to what. I will like to run this with as minimal wiring as possible, sort of standalone while I leave the Defender's existing circuitry as-is where possible.

Would you please be kind to show me the wiring diagrams that could help me along. Any little bit will be much appreciated.
 

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Discussion Starter · #853 · (Edited)
Hello Falkon!

I replied to your private message, but I'll post it here as well so that it serves as a warning for others who are planning to install an M54 (or S54 or newer) engine in their Defender.

Short version:
Don't do it unless you already know exactly what you are doing.

Long version:
For the M54 you will need to build an adapter harness that includes connectors that mate with the X5 harness and ECU, as well as including some the wiring that's normally part of a Defender engine harness such as wiring for the diff lock, speed transducer, and reverse lights switch.

For the X5 harness you will need to get the diagrams and pinout for the 4th DME connector that is called X60004 and also the main connector that is called X6011. They are included in BMW's WDS and may also be found in the DIS and ISTA software from BMW. Of course you will also need the diagrams for the Defender.

You also cannot install the X5 EWS because it requires a K-bus. The only EWS you can install is from a Z3 which needs the matching ECU and keys of course. The other option is to delete the EWS.

I'm sorry to say, but the wiring for this is very advanced and it is not something you should be doing if you do not have the expertise. I know that is not what you wanted to hear, but that is the reality. If you use a Z3 harness then you can use the 2001 Z3 ETM for the diagrams which is easy to find online. The main connectors on the Z3 M54 harness are X2499 and X6021 (instead of the single X6011).

My other suggestion is to install a single vanos M52 engine like the Defender 2.8i or S50 from an M3 which has more simple wiring. I decided to install the S52 engine instead of the M54 because the electronics are more simple. The A/C and check engine light are CAN bus functions on the M54 and I don't like having to install extra modules for that and also it is more simple to have a cable actuated throttle pedal.
 

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Hello Falkon!

I replied to your private message, but I'll post it here as well so that it serves as a warning for others who are planning to install an M54 (or S54 or newer) engine in their Defender.

Short version:
Don't do it unless you already know exactly what you are doing.

Long version:
For the M54 you will need to build an adapter harness that includes connectors that mate with the X5 harness and ECU, as well as including some the wiring that's normally part of a Defender engine harness such as wiring for the diff lock, speed transducer, and reverse lights switch.

For the X5 harness you will need to get the diagrams and pinout for the 4th DME connector that is called X60004 and also the main connector that is called X6011. They are included in BMW's WDS and may also be found in the TIS and in the ISTA software from BMW. Of course you will also need the diagrams for the Defender.

You also cannot install the X5 EWS because it requires a K-bus. The only EWS you can install is from a Z3 which needs the matching ECU and keys of course. The other option is to delete the EWS.

I'm sorry to say, but the wiring for this is very advanced and it is not something you should be doing if you do not have the expertise. I know that is not what you wanted to hear, but that is the reality. If you use a Z3 harness then you can use the 2001 Z3 ETM for the diagrams which is easy to find online. The main connectors on the Z3 M54 harness are X2499 and X6021 (instead of the single X6011).

My other suggestion is to install a single vanos M52 engine like the Defender 2.8i or S50 from an M3 which has more simple wiring. I decided to install the S52 engine instead of the M54 because the electronics are more simple. The A/C and check engine light are CAN bus functions on the M54 and I don't like having to install extra modules for that and also it is more simple to have a cable throttle actuated pedal.
Hey Chip,

Thanks a lot for your candid response, I really appreciate that very much.

I will look more into this endeavour to exhaust the possibilities. I already have the M54 Engine and Auto Transmission on hand with the various ECU, EWS, TCM and the Engine harness; it's really unfortunate that the Body Harness wires were cut hence I am searching to see what diagrams I could find to know what leads to where and to assist the Electrical guy that will be helping me with the wiring eventually.

Unfortunately, the BMW's New TIS site seems to have been closed so I am unable to go fetch these wiring diagrams from there.

Thanks once again and I will look into the Z3 harness you mentioned as my last option.
 

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Discussion Starter · #855 · (Edited)
One of the things I've kept in mind with the engine change is keeping the truck 50 state legal, but it looks like it won't be compliant for California. I was looking at the 'Engine Change Guidelines' contained in the 'Smog Check Reference Guide' and the donor and recipient vehicle need to have the same weight class, so that's a no go with the S52 because the M3 is a different weight class than the D90. The M54 would be compliant since it was used in the X5 which is the same weight class as the D90, except the catalytic converters would need to remain in the exhaust manifolds. It says, "If the device is integrated with the exhaust manifold, it must remain that way." I tried test fitting those and the front one wouldn't fit with the engine mount, but it might if the engine mount was modified. I didn't like the idea of modifying an original 2.8i engine mount. However, the guidelines specify a tolerance of up to 6 inches, so it looks like the cat could be moved back up to 6 inches to clear the engine mount. Another problem with the M54 is that a working check engine light is required for California and that's a CAN-bus function on that engine's ECU so it requires a CAN-bus instrument cluster or custom controller that can process the CAN signals. Of course this isn't a problem in Oregon and I don't have plans to take the truck to California, so I guess I won't worry about it. I don't know if an imported factory built 2.8i could be made California compliant. Perhaps not since the M52 was never certified for this weight class.

I understand why they don't want an engine from a higher weight class installed in a lower weight class vehicle because they pollute more, but you would think they would allow an engine from a lower weight class to be installed in a higher weight class vehicle because it pollutes less. Given that logic perhaps they would allow it. I was trying to search online to find people's experience with this and so far I haven't found anyone trying to install a lower weight class engine, but I found a thread where someone was trying to install a higher weight class engine (an Expo engine into a Ranger). They said, "Got a call back [from Smog Referee], it’s a no go for my Ranger. There is no appeals process either. Simply, LDT2 are allowed to pollute more than LDT1, and the intention is not to make a “worse polluting” vehicle." So it would be interesting to see what a Smog Referee says about going the other way.

Source: CA: Looking for someone to talk to about BAR approved Engine change/swap process
 

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Discussion Starter · #856 · (Edited)
Someone posted a full read of their original Defender 2.8i DME here. If I you live in an area without emissions testing you could use it for the Defender specific M52 tune. This thread shows where the ISN and VIN are located in it so you can change them to match your vehicle (the VIN actually begins one location ahead that is stated in the thread and it needs to be changed to match the DME you are flashing). In a few different MS41 ROMs I’ve looked at the VIN is located in there once, twice, or three times. I think that’s because it gets recorded again into the UIF when the software is updated.
 

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Discussion Starter · #857 · (Edited)
I was looking in California's emissions standards document and it looks like the vehicle classifications based on weight are more complicated than what's stated in the engine change guidelines. For example, for the LEV 1 standards phased in from 94 to 2003, a passenger car and the first light duty truck category are the same weight class and are required to meet the same emissions standards. So you should be allowed to install an engine from a car into a small pickup, or vice versa, which isn't allowed according to the engine change guidelines as they are written. With the introduction of LEV II standards for the 2004 model year all light duty trucks and medium duty passenger vehicles with a GVW of 8,500 lbs and less were combined with passenger cars. That means, for example, you should be able to install a 2004 or newer Corvette engine into a Suburban, or vice versa, since they are subject to the same emissions standards. Some of the weight classifications also changed with the different emissions standards. For example, MDV2 became LDT3. How the engine change guidelines are written it might not be allowed to install an LDT3 engine into a MDV2 even though they are equivalent.

However, it's more simple for pre-OBD2 vehicles. It looks like the 93-95 Defender is simply classified as "T-1" weight class (97 is MDV2) and that's the same class as most every other small truck or van. So perhaps it would be fine to install any engine from basically any T-1 vehicle into a Defender in California. I did find an example so far of California allowing a different weight class engine to be installed. They allow a 2.2 Subaru car engine in a VW Vanagon. A company called Kennedy Engineered Products applied for smog approval and after testing they got it. So it looks to me the M52 or S52 in a Defender could be made legal in California, but it would probably require emissions testing with an executive order application. I guess that's as far as I'll look into it.

Smog Check Reference Guide

APPENDIX B SUMMARY OF THE CALIFORNIA AND FEDERAL
LIGHT- AND MEDIUM-DUTY VEHICLE PROGRAMS
 

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Discussion Starter · #858 ·
Here's some great news, well except for the money part. :)

I talked to G&K Automotive in Santa Ana and they can get the S52 engine certified in the Land Rover for California. They quoted me $17,500 and it takes 4 months. They said they've done several certifications for LS swaps in Defenders and those cost about $10k, but the BMW engine costs a little more because it would be the first one. So any subsequent ones should be about $10k. So if there was a shop that was going to do a few of them they could spread out the cost. I asked about the weight class and they said it didn't matter. It's the same process. So it looks like the M54 would need to go through that certification process in California as well.
 

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Discussion Starter · #859 ·
I've always thought it is goofy Defenders don't have a battery jump point under the bonnet. I've thought about adding one, but I wasn't sure how until I noticed the 5 & 7 Series BMWs with the M52 engine have a battery jump point in the middle of the intake manifold. I guess BMW engineers didn't think to add that to the Defender 2.8i because they borrowed the engine from the 3 Series. All that's required is a special cable that goes in-between the starter and alternator, a special bolt, and the covering cap.

 
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