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Discussion Starter · #1 · (Edited)
Hey everyone,
This is going to be my project thread for the ongoing restoration of my 94 Defender 90. I'm building it as a tribute to one of the lost NAS 2.8i prototypes.



I bought this truck 2 years ago and I've been fixing it up a little here and there since with the ultimate goal of returning it to it's former glory, but with some improvements. :)

I've always been a BMW guy and this is my first Land Rover. I've always wanted a Defender though. Before I was old enough to drive I remember sitting in one and dreaming at the auto show when they were new. My dad told me, "This is a real Land Rover." One of the biggest things that drew me to BMW though was their engines. I think they are great. And since I've had the Defender I've been thinking about putting a BMW engine in it. I've done an engine conversion before so I knew mostly what it would entail. I had a 88 325is that I swapped a S54 from a E46 M3. (Build thread here: http://www.r3vlimited.com/board/showthread.php?t=237727) The S54 is one of my favourite BMW engines, but as a high-revving motorsport engine I felt it wouldn't be appropriate for a 4x4 vehicle, so I decided that a 3.0L M54 should go in the Defender (I later changed my mind to the 3.2L S52 as you will see farther into the thread).

Luckily most of the major parts to do the conversion from the V8 are factory items since Land Rover built the M52 powered Defender 2.8i in South Africa and the M51 diesel powered P38 Range Rover so very little custom work will be needed. I originally sourced an M51 P38 bell housing from the UK, but I discovered it is different from the 2.8i bell housing. I was able to find one of those in South Africa.

I bought a new Valeo clutch kit and LuK dual mass flywheel from the UK.



Because my truck is left-hand drive the location of the steering box will be in the way of the power steering pump on the BMW engine, so I am installing a P38 steering box. I will also need to relocate the alternator higher up.

This week I started the work and yesterday I got the old engine out. :)





 

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Discussion Starter · #4 ·
Unfortunately the Hollister shirt is no more. The back ripped out when I was pulling on the engine hoist. I felt like the incredible hulk. lol
 

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Discussion Starter · #20 ·
Andrew, take the ribbing from these guys with a grain of salt and know that it would be a lot worse if they didn't respect you just a little but for doing your own wrenching.

You may as well replace the top end gaskets and PCV breather kit on that M54 while you're in there! Otherwise it's a solid lump for sure. I wanted to transplant an M54 into my '73 E9 but it would have been so costly that I might as well went with a full on S38 swap. It's nice that you were able to locate the bellhousing etc. that makes a huge difference when you don't have to have stuff fabricated.
Good luck with the rest of the build
Okay. :)
That stuff won't be too hard to get to later on so I'll just leave it for now since the engine has low miles. We just replaced an engine in a E46 328i because it failed due to a bad CCV, so I know about the problem. I guess it kinda turned the oil into mayonnaise during a cold snap this past winter and injected it into the cylinders and exhaust. After I get the engine started I'll put a balloon over the dipstick tube and see if it inflates. :) So did you put the S38 in your E9?

------ Follow up post added July 11th, 2014 10:26 AM ------

Interesting, one of my mechanics is doing a similar build using a M54 older version, but then the M version. Probably will be the only M powered Defender.
That's very cool. Will he be using it for racing? A guy in South Africa built one with a M engine. I guess the M engine's bearings didn't take too kindly to the off-road treatment though and he tore up some R380's. See my post about it here: http://www.defendersource.com/forum/showpost.php?p=540463&postcount=34
 

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Discussion Starter · #22 ·
Andrew let me know what the BMW ecu expects in terms of input from the throttle pedal and I can tell you if the td5 pedal can be used to provide the same. I am using a td5 pedal for my electric project and know a bit about it.
Okay, here is BMW's wiring diagram for the pedal:



And the ECU pinout:


 

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Discussion Starter · #24 ·
The TD5 pedal provides two signals so that's a start. What kind of signal is the BMW expecting? The TD5 basically has 2 potentiometers that give inverse voltages that ad up to the input voltage. So if you gave it 12V, the sum of the two signals will be 12V (or some constant fraction close to 12V)

I paid way too much for my connectors, but once I had them in hand, they appear to be Delphi 12065425.
Thanks for the help, but I'll just use the BMW gas pedal. I don't want to risk damaging the ECU.

------ Follow up post added July 11th, 2014 10:58 PM ------

The pedal in the new BMW i3 has a couple little brackets, so I might order those to help get me started.

 

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Discussion Starter · #27 ·
I would personally research the bmw needs more myself. What's the model # for the ECU and the pedal? It's very hard to hurt the ECU unless you get the voltage wrong. The defender TD5 uses 5V for example.

It's your build so just take it with a grain of salt, but besides being much more durable, the TD5 pedal will have the right foot resistance and pedal travel to fit in with the other pedals. I don't think you'll like the feel of the BMW pedal in the defender - the seating position is totally different.
Yes, that's true. It'll probably work out okay though. Land Rover put the BMW pedal in the L322 Range Rover. The pedal I bought is part # 35426858575. The ECU is a Siemens MS43 from a 2002 330i.

------ Follow up post added July 12th, 2014 02:10 PM ------

I would consider swapping the steering box to a P38a or scout II steering box. They mount outside the rails. Having owned a DBW 530i, the pedal mounting will be interesting to say the least with the shape of the D90 bulkhead.
I've considered using the P38 steering box, but I'd like to avoid doing that if I can. I'm not sure how I'd avoid running into a problem with the panhard rod bracket. If I can't fit the alternator, I'll mount it on the other side of the engine, but then of course I couldn't fit the A/C compressor. I've been trying to decide whether I want to keep A/C and I believe I do. If I have to mount the alternator there then it looks like I could probably get an electric A/C compressor from a Toyota Prius.

 

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Discussion Starter · #32 ·
Hmm, well what I'll probably end up doing is making a bracket to just move the alternator up a bit so I can mount the regular BMW compressor. I believe it's a Denso 7SBU16C.
 

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Discussion Starter · #37 · (Edited)
Chip, you should strongly consider the advice to use the TD5 pedal.

Every European car that I know of uses a 5V reference signal and a pair of inverse signals from the pedal to the ECU.

The BMW pedal is hokey.
The wiring diagram for the TD5 pedal doesn't give very much info and it has a different number of wires compared to the BMW pedal. Do you know what each wire is?
Here's the TD5 accelerator pedal wiring diagram:



Now, I've looked up the diagram for the TDCi/Puma accelerator pedal and it looks like it may be more compatible. It has 6 wires just like the BMW gas pedal and it tells you what the wires are. Except I don't know what those terms mean. Can you tell if 2 are voltage supply (output from DME), 2 are signal (input to DME), and 2 are ground like on the BMW pedal?

Here's the TDCi/Puma accelerator pedal wiring diagram:



------ Follow up post added July 18th, 2014 01:32 PM ------

It looks like the TDCi/Puma pedal is a Ford design. I found this in regards to the pedal in the Ford Escape:

"There are two pedal position signals in the sensor. Both signals, APP1 and APP2, have a positive slope (increasing angle, increasing voltage), but are offset and increase at different rates. The two pedal position signals make sure the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) receives a correct input even if one signal has a concern. The PCM determines if a signal is incorrect by calculating where it should be, inferred from the other signals. If a concern is present with one of the circuits the other input is used. There are two reference voltage circuits, two signal return circuits, and two signal circuits (a total of six circuits and pins) between the PCM and the APP sensor assembly. " -From AutoZone

It doesn't say anything about 2 of them being ground, but are the "two signal return circuits" grounds? Because according to the Lucas wire colour code, SIGRTN and SIGRTN4 should be grounds, correct?

So based on the diagram and Ford's description this is what I have:
-APP1 and APP2 are signals
-The 2 APPBVREF's are voltage supply
-SIGRTN and SIGRTN4 are ground

Think that is correct?

But then I am unsure which APPBVREF and which SIGRTN corresponds to which APP, or if it matters.
 

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Discussion Starter · #38 · (Edited)
Still though, I paid $100 for the BMW pedal and $700 for the ECU & tune, so I'm going to use the BMW pedal and not risk playing around with an untested configuration. Someone else can try using the other pedals. :)
 

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Discussion Starter · #39 ·
Once you get this up and running, the next project should be a BMW V12 swap.
Hell would have to freeze over before I put a massive gas guzzling V12 in anything. Ideally I'd put BMW's new 4 cylinder twin-turbo diesel in a Defender for ideal weight distribution and fuel efficiency, but at this point it's much too expensive.
 

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Discussion Starter · #40 · (Edited)
Today I’ve been researching the air intake system. I was originally intending on just using a K&N cone filter pointed off to the side of the plenum. But that would just suck hot air in from the engine compartment, so I’ve decided I want to replicate the Defender 2.8i's original air intake system which sucks cold air via a duct system attached to a vent on the side of the truck like on the diesels. I've found the air cleaner assembly, which is NLA from Land Rover, was made by Donaldson. The filter has part number P772579. According to Donaldson's tech data sheet, they currently make 4 air cleaners that take that filter that are similar to the one used in the Defender 2.8i. Model G070009 is used in a plethora of tractors and other equipment made by John Deere, Bobcat, Komatsu, etc. This website came up with a cross-reference of the part numbers: http://filterspro.com/results.cfm?searchfor=G070009. However, I haven't been able to find out which exact models came with that air cleaner so it would probably be hard to find a used one at a salvage yard. I've scoured eBay with no success. I’ll probably order it from John Deere. As far as the ducts to the outside, I can just use generic tubing. My truck though of course doesn't have the side vent so I'd either have to cut it out, which wouldn't look very nice, or replace the outer wing. I guess the best idea would be to route it to the existing vent on the top wing, but I have to figure out how to prevent water from getting in there. I don’t really want to install a snorkel. Maybe I can use one of those snow covers. The duct for the 2.8i has a built-in water separator but I don't know how it works exactly.

Donaldson air cleaner tech data sheet: http://www.emea.donaldson.com/en/compressor/support/datalibrary/049945.pdf

Defender 2.8i air cleaner and duct system:


 

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Discussion Starter · #42 · (Edited)
Why not ditch the drive by wire altogether?? You have spent a lot on keeping in, I don't understand why, when I think you could do away with it altogether and have more control over the engine performance. The only benefits it would offer are for traction control, which obviously you are not going to have with this setup.

Where are you going to put the BMW ECU?
No, I've only the spent the cost of the electronic accelerator pedal. It doesn't change the cost of the ECU & tune. The M54 engine and ECU are designed for drive-by-wire operation. I would have to change a lot of parts on the engine including the throttle body to allow the utilization of a cable throttle. When I put the S54 into my E30 I was hesitant switching it to drive-by-wire so I originally bought an expensive cable throttle mechanism only to discover that it was very difficult to modulate because the S54's throttle bodies were not designed to be operated with a throttle cable. So I put the electronic throttle motor back on and installed an electronic pedal and everything was grand. :)

I'm going to put the BMW ECU in the upper right foot well where the old ECU was. I bought a wiring harness for a Z3 that should be plenty long to reach there.

------ Follow up post added July 23rd, 2014 12:03 PM ------

I just called the Transmission Exchange Co. that's swapping out the input shaft on the R380 to get an update. They originally told me it would probably take about 2 hours to swap it out. Now they said according to their books that transmission isn't serviceable (okay...) and it's going to take 5 hours as long as everything goes as planned. So I'm looking at $560 now. I guess I should have tried doing it myself since I have the overhaul manual here and apparently they don't... Does that sound reasonable?
 

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Discussion Starter · #44 ·
I was thinking of a M52tu throttle body, which is cable actuated. You would have to change the tune at the very least, if not use a M52tu DME, to use a throttle position sensor instead of a pedal sensor.
Personal preference here, but I would never put a sensor that I depended on for driving my Defender, in the floorboard. I'm sure you are aware, those pedal units aren't very robust even in a road going car, they get broken all the time by nothing more than a loose floor mat.
No, that's way too much work just to keep the cable throttle. Besides, the M52TU intake etc aren't even the same size. I'm not going to downgrade performance and technology. I'm not buying a new ECU and paying for a new tune either. I'm committed at this point. I've been thinking about how to mount the new pedal. Perhaps I can make sort of an L shaped bracket to mount it on that bolts on up above to the original pedal mounting points. I'll figure it out. :thumb:
 

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Discussion Starter · #46 ·
Hmm, I guess I won't ask for any more opinions and I'm going to do whatever I want. This is my project. I'll let you know when it's finished. :)
 

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Discussion Starter · #48 · (Edited)
Do what you want, have fun, and be happy, but don't let us get you down! Ask away and take the responses with a grain of salt and you'll be fine.

Oh and show us some more pics of that dashing smile and it'll settle the natives.
Okay. I was a little irritated the transmission shop was charging me much more than their original quote, but it's all good now. They just called me and it is ready to be picked up! I think this calls for a toast! :)

 

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Discussion Starter · #57 ·
Oh HAI!

Had to join up to watch this evolve since it migrated here from r3v. Please more pictures!

The world needs more 24v Rovers.
Hey welcome to the Defender Source! I agree!

------ Follow up post added August 1st, 2014 10:00 AM ------

My new air cleaner assembly arrived from John Deere today. It turns out it is exactly the same air cleaner used in the Defender 2.8i! John Deere part # RE58919. It comes with a new filter element too so that's nice.

 

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Discussion Starter · #60 ·
Proof that we drive Tractors?
Indeed! lol

------ Follow up post added August 1st, 2014 10:57 AM ------

I don't know what's more expensive....
OEM John Deere parts or OEM Land Rover parts!!!!
they are both $$$$
Yeah, I surprised I could get it for less from John Deere than from a Donaldson distributor. I ordered it from www.greenfarmparts.com. It came out to $132.79 after a 2% off promo code plus free shipping.
 

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Discussion Starter · #65 · (Edited)
I was wondering what high range ratio they used in the South African edition. And whether or not the ZF box could be connected to it with the bell housing from the RR 2.5 diesel. Think that was the only other RR with a BMW six
Hmm, good question about the ratio. I read the R380 in the 2.8i is same as the 300tdi other than the input shaft, but who really knows. I'm sure you could use any BMW 4HP22 ZF bell housing.
 
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