The Fuel Thermistor tells the ECU what the temp of the Fuel is, I can't see this causing the Cats to blow up.
Cats die all on there own when they get clogged up, then your gas mileage goes to down and then the insides break up and come out the back just like you said.
I would try resetting the ECU after you check all the codes and watch too see if more codes come back. If they do come back check here
to get a better idea about what they mean. I have often had codes come up that did not return after I reset the ECU.