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Old August 19th, 2013, 04:38 AM
DustyRusty
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2007 Defender PUMA - 1st time possible buyer

Good day everyone.

I am new here, reason being, stumbled upon a 2007 Turbo Diesel Defender PUMA with a Ford engine. I am planning on having an expendition vehicle to drive for a very long journey around Central Asia and Africa.

I have always been a Toyota driver, and maintaned at least for the most part average maintenance if anything breaks - been good so far, nothing really broke!

What is your recommendation on the 2007 Puma, is fairly clean and has been in storage for about 2 yrs now.

What are the issues I may face on the road from reliability perspective? Is the car itself reliable?

Thank you in advance,

Appreciate any reply.

A.
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Old August 19th, 2013, 06:33 AM
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Old December 30th, 2014, 08:14 PM
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Seems like you've got great replies here.

Well, there is and there will always be a discussion about best engines, specially 300TDI vs Puma.

To me, it depends on what you're going to face and your expertise in mechanics.

All of them will require some kind of maintenance, specially if you plan to do long trips.

In terms of reliability (considering "reliability" as "how much you'll have to stop to do maintenance"), I'd go with the Toyota. I read "nothing really broke" on your post, which enforces my opinion.

But, although I never had a Toyota, I think having a Defender you'll do a lot of friends. There's a huge community out there ready to help, should you run into problems.

I also read the Puma has "been in storage for about 2 yrs now". Two years is a lot of time, so make sure you carefully check all fluids before put the engine to work. Special care with the cooling system. Also look for rust on the body.

About issues you may face on the road, I'd say you can face steering box leaks, broken alternator and problems with the EGR. The electronic Puma engine can be good or bad, depending on your knowledge. I myself use a OBD-II bluetooth reader connected to my cell phone, so I can keep track of what's going on with the engine in real time, read fault codes, etc... It's a handy thing.

Well, hope that helps and hope this answer is not too late...

Good luck!
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Old December 30th, 2014, 08:55 PM
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I heard several times that the Puma 110 rear differential is very weak, some overlanders replace them immediately, otherwise great trucks, carnet would be expensive because of the higher truck value. 200tdi 110's are coveted in Africa, but are underpowered. 300tdi owners worry about overheating but, 300's are used by huge rental company's like bushlore. TD5 owners carry a load of spare electrical parts and their trucks are fun to drive. Contact Jason at Roverland in Cape Town or Nick Selby at Foley's Africa in Zambia for more details. Contact me if you have any questions about logistics. I highly recommend buying a Defender in Africa!!! And buy what ever truck gets you excited/gets you over there...everything else will work itself out.

Just noticed original post was from 2013.
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Old December 31st, 2014, 02:24 AM
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Yip 2013 ....but anyway..might be of use to others....

I was going to buy a 2007 130 Puma....it was a friends 130,only did road driving and was as clean as a whistle. I knew they had a few teething problems relative the the clutch(amongst others)

Whilst I was thinking about it the Puma was taken in for a new clutch at only 110,000kms

As I read up about it I came across an LR Tech bulletin that stated that if the engine was rough on start up,and only if a customer complained of same,then replace the whole engine as it was the piston oil cooling jets not functioning properly. This effected engines up to July 2008 when the jets were modified. So,IMO I'd say it would be a time bomb....

Based on this I had to give it a miss....

2007's as a first year model run had all sorts of problems from corrosion to gearboxes blowing etc etc.

Annoying that LR didn't make it a recall on the engine front,no doubt due to the cost involved and more bad publicity.





.
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Old December 31st, 2014, 04:24 AM
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Puma diffs are OK, I think there was just a bad batch of 110 rear pinion bearings.


But things to look for:


Gearbox intermediate shaft into the transfer box... they strip the splines for a passtime (check out defender2 forum for lots of pics of that fault)
Some had problems with the brake vacuum pump
clutches also broke up quickly


Pretty rubbish really for a "go anywhere 4x4" vehicle. better off with a MB G wagen 461
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Old December 31st, 2014, 05:05 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RX6RCROL View Post
I heard several times that the Puma 110 rear differential is very weak, some overlanders replace them immediately, otherwise great trucks, carnet would be expensive because of the higher truck value. 200tdi 110's are coveted in Africa, but are underpowered. 300tdi owners worry about overheating but, 300's are used by huge rental company's like bushlore. TD5 owners carry a load of spare electrical parts and their trucks are fun to drive. Contact Jason at Roverland in Cape Town or Nick Selby at Foley's Africa in Zambia for more details. Contact me if you have any questions about logistics. I highly recommend buying a Defender in Africa!!! And buy what ever truck gets you excited/gets you over there...everything else will work itself out.

Just noticed original post was from 2013.
the 200 and 300 are exactly the same displacement and compression ratio's. The engines share many of the same components. The difference in hp is like 5 due to the 300 using a different garret turbo that makes slightly more boost.
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Old December 31st, 2014, 08:33 AM
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If I recall correctly, the complaints I heard about 300tdi's had something to do with minor coolant loss and engines rapidly overheating causing the heads to warp. Something to do with the 300's water pump being mounted higher. I've also read that 200tdi's are so much more robust than 300tdi's that they can be reliably tuned to near TD5 performance using 2.8PS components.
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Old December 31st, 2014, 09:25 AM
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The 200TDI is essentially a 2.5 diesel with different rods, pistons, and head with a unique stiffening girdle and oil pan. The IP was developed to match the small factory fitted turbo (which the engine is not designed to run without).

The 300TDI is a completely new design that shared the same basic piston, turbo, head, turbo, and IP concept.
So much so that the heads and IP can be interchanged, with the right amount of adapting.

The 300 corrected 2 major 200 flaws, the small bridge in the head between the valves prone to cracking and the front cover design.
The 200 coolant passes through the front cover.
During a 200 head gasket failure (a fairly common occurrence), compression is often pushed into the cooling system blowing out the gasket between the block and the front cover resulting in a coolant leak that can only be fixed by tearing the front of the engine down and removing the complete timing assembly, water pump, engine cover, IP, and so on.
The 300TDI has the water pump in a different location as Mathew mentions.
The coolant does not pass through the front cover (like the 200), but through a separate housing with the "P" gasket that is easily replaced.
I know of no scenarios where 300TDI engines "out of the box" suffer from running hot.
Everyone has different experiences, but mine has been that owners "monkey around" with IP timing, higher fuel, and more boost and that can result in the engines running hot.
Also when the head gaskets fail and the before mentioned scenario of coolant pressurization takes place, the head doesn't cool properly and the cast aluminum is prone to warping, again stated by Mathew.

I have also heard that 200TDI engines can be tuned more robustly, but have never seen one turned up to prove it.
That doesn't mean they don't exist, but since the 200 and 300 share the same swept volume mentioned by Uncle Douglas, it seems logical that you could get the same performance from tuning a 300.

The Puma has an electronically controlled English Ford engine.
Years ago, I spoke to a guy who made an engine adapter that went into Turkish armored cars that used a manual IP on the Puma 2.4. It would be interesting to set up one of those engines without the electronics.
The guy, Andy told me that the Turks shipped him an engine and transmission and he built the adapters.
It was a friend of his that pointed out the Puma engine which he later verified.
Wonder what rear diff the Turkish armored cars used?
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Old December 31st, 2014, 10:06 AM
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Isn't it funny how once a thread starts it sort of takes on a life of it's own... even an old one like this. The OP only ever made the one post and hasn't been here since then....
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Old December 31st, 2014, 10:39 AM
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Taken from: http://glencoyne.co.uk/tdipage1.htm

Here you will find a comprehensive guide to the ever-popular 200 and 300 TDi engines, used by Land Rover in the Discovery, Defender and Range Rover Classic from 1989 onwards. This guide covers history, specifications, known weaknesses, maintenance and rebuilding. Hopefully people will find it useful.

The TDi family - a short history
The 200 TDi engine made its first appearance at the launch of the Discovery in 1989. It was Land Rover's third attempt at putting a turbodiesel engine into its range. The Ninety and One Ten had gained a turbodiesel option in 1986, with a beefed-up version of the old 2.5 diesel which could trace its origins back to the Series One. It sold well, but even though it used a small turbo running at fairly low boost pressure to give just 15 bhp more than the non-turbo version, the power increase in the '19J' engine led to problems with pistons and cylinder blocks cracking, sometimes at very low mileages. Fuel economy was also poor compared to the best of the Japanese competition. Meanwhile (and following the failure of 'Project Iceberg', an attempt to dieselise the Rover V8) the Range Rover had received a completely different 2.4 litre engine bought in from VM of Italy. This was more refined and powerful than Land Rover's own turbodiesel, but was expensive to buy in and soon developed a reputation for eating head gaskets. With the new Discovery scheduled for launch in 1989 Land Rover needed a powerful, reliable turbodiesel, and fast.
Hence the 200 TDi, known within Land Rover as 'Project Gemini'. The new engine was designed to be machined using the same tooling as the old 2.5 turbodiesel, so the basic dimensions and component layout remained the same. A number of major components were carried over including the crankshaft and camshaft. However the cylinder head was all new, cast in aluminium rather than iron, and using direct injection. This had been common on large commercial vehicles for many years but was still fairly rare on smaller diesels in 1989. It offered easier cold starting, lower emissions and greater fuel efficiency, at the expense of increased engine noise. To overcome the block cracking issue Land Rover bolted a large aluminium strengthener between the block and the sump.
In its original Discovery configuration the 200TDi had the injection pump mounted fairly high up on the right hand side of the engine and the turbo mounted low down on the left hand side. In 1990 the Ninety and One Ten also received 200 TDi power, with the range being renamed 'Defender' to mark the change. The Defender version of the engine had the injection pump mounted much lower, while the turbo was high up above the inlet manifold, in the same position as the old 19J turbodiesel. Manifold and exhaust changes meant that the Defender version produced around 4 bhp less than the Discovery (107 versus 111 bhp). However the core components of the engine - block, crank, pistons, camshaft and cylinder head - were identical across the two versions.

200 TDi timing cases compared - Defender on left, Discovery on right
The 200 TDi proved very durable and economical, and the new Discovery sold in large numbers. However the 200 was a rough, noisy old thing compared to many of its competitors. It was also quite expensive to manufacture, not least because of the cast aluminium strengthener, and having to make two quite different versions of the same engine didn't help. Enter the 300 TDi - identical cylinder capacity and power output to the 200, but comprehensively redesigned to make it smoother, quieter and cheaper. Barely a single component was carried over from the 200 to the 300. Changes to the Discovery to accommodate the new engine were minimal, but the Defender needed to be extensively reworked to achieve Land Rover's aim of being able to use the exactly the same engine in both vehicles. The gearbox and transfer box were moved forwards (to the same position as the Defender V8, allowing V8 seatbox, floors, transmission tunnel, propshafts etc to be used). In conjunction with a much longer bellhousing, the engine now sat a good six inches further forward in the engine bay.
The 300 TDi had an all new block, internally strengthened to allow the cast strengthener to be dumped. All the external ancillaries were moved around: the oil filter housing now occupied the space previously taken by the offside engine mount, a piston-type vacuum pump was fitted where the fuel lift pump had been, and the engine mounting brackets (a totally new design) were moved much further back along the block. The cylinder head was redesigned with recessed combustion chambers and a modified valve rocker assembly. At the front, a single flat ribbed 'serpentine' drive belt replaced the 200's two V-profile belts, the water pump was moved to a much higher position (and made much smaller) with the power steering pump just below it. Two-stage injectors were used to reduce combustion clatter.
The 200 TDi Discovery had been available with automatic transmission but it wasn't exactly quick. For later 300 TDi Discos with the autobox, Bosch EDC 'fly by wire' throttle control was used, combined with changes to the fuelling profile and turbo boost, giving useful increases in power and torque. These engines were designated 23L.

300 TDi front end showing serpentine belt and tensioner (top centre)
The 300 TDi was available on the UK market until 1998, when new EU emission regulations led to it being replaced by the all-new TD5. It remained available for export and military markets until 2006. The Defender 'Wolf', purchased in large numbers for the British Army from 1996 onwards, used the 300 TDi, and these vehicles are expected to remain in service for a long time yet. A few late export-market 300 TDi Defenders have turned up back in the UK as personal imports.
Even then, the TDi story does not end. A Brazilian company, International Motors, acquired the right to manufacture a 2.8 litre version of the 300 TDi. A number of these engines have been imported into the UK for retrofitting to older Defenders, and the engine remains available, now with variable geometry turbo kicking out 135 bhp and enough torque to pull down a house.

Displaced camshaft bearings
This is the killer. It is not unique to the TDi family, and can happen on the earlier 2.5 diesels as well. It is not that common on 200 TDis and almost unknown on 300s, but happens often enough that you need to be aware of it. The camshaft bearings are pressed into the block and then line-reamed to provide the correct bearing clearance for the camshaft. In certain circumstances, and particularly if an engine has been run very hot, one or more cam bearings can work loose and 'walk' out of position. This exposes the oilway which feeds the cam bearing, resulting in almost complete loss of oil pressure. The really bad news is that if it happens on the motorway, the oil pump will generate just enough pressure at speed to keep the pressure warning light out, but not enough to keep the crankshaft and pistons lubricated. By the time the oil light finally comes on, the destruction of the engine internals is pretty much complete.
Usually the first sign of trouble is an oil light that flickers at idle. If this happens to you, do not ignore it. Don't panic immediately - the sender unit for the oil light can fail and give this symptom. But if you change the sender and the light still flickers at idle, you will need to investigate further, and that means taking the camshaft out. A worn oil pump will also give low oil pressure, but TDi oil pumps are massive and robust and seldom give problems. Replacing camshaft bearings is a machine shop job, and if the offending bearing has spun in its housing, the block will be scrap.

Cylinder head gasket failure
These engines have an aluminium cylinder head on an iron block. The two metals expand at different rates, so even though the head is bolted down tight and dowelled as well, head gasket failure can occur typically from around 120,000 miles upwards. For vehicles used for multiple short journeys problems may appear at a much lower mileage.
There are several different types of failure. What most people think of as a 'classic' head gasket failure - overheating, pressure building up in the cooling system - is not all that common, and quite likely to be the result of a failure elsewhere in the cooling system causing the engine to overheat and warp the cylinder head. This is more common on the 300 TDi than the 200. The 300 has the water pump mounted very high up, so the coolant level does not need to drop far before it no longer reaches the pump. (The 200 can lose about two thirds of its coolant before having circulation problems). The gasket between the water pump housing and block on the 300 is also weak and prone to leaking. It is good practice with any engine to check coolant level weekly and before any long journey: with the 300 TDi it is vital. These engines will punish you heavily if you neglect this task.
More common is a failure of the head gasket between number four cylinder and the rear edge of the head. This creates a 'chuffing' noise - if you run your finger along the join between the back of the head and the block you will be able to feel the exhaust gases pulsing out.

Two typical TDi gasket failures - head gasket breaking up between number 4 cylinder and number 8 pushrod tube, and manifold gasket cracked across an inlet port
Perhaps the most common failure point is between one of the cylinders and a pushrod tube (again, usually number four cylinder). This gives you a whole variety of alarming symptoms. The engine will run very roughly, blow oil out of every single joint and seal, and if you remove the oil filler cap huge quantities of smoke will belch out. At higher revs the engine may also start to 'run away' due to oil being drawn into the affected cylinder. A fair few people have been persuaded to pay up for a reconditioned engine on the strength of these symptoms, when all that is needed is a new head gasket.
Replacing the head gasket on a TDi engine is not difficult, although you may find some nasty surprises when you lift the head (see 'head cracking' below).

Cylinder head cracking
TDi heads are fairly robust but can develop cracks in the casting, especially if badly overheated. The 300 head seems less strong that the 200. Cracks around the heater plugs and injectors are pretty common and can be ignored if very small. Cracks between the valves are more serious as there is the danger that these will spread into the waterways in the head, and also that they may cause the valve seats to work loose and drop out of position. If removing the head for any reason, it should be throughly inspected for signs of cracking. 300 TDi heads are available new and surprisingly cheap for such a major component. 200 heads have been unavailable for several years. At the moment there are still enough good used heads around to meet demand, but I suspect that before long people will have to start looking at having cracked heads welded up.

Manifold gasket failure
More common on 300 than 200, and I have no idea why. Possibly something to do with the exhaust manifold design, as the manifold bolt pattern is identical and the 300 gasket looks stronger than the 200. On a turbodiesel engine there is always a little oil in the induction system, from the turbo bearings. The manifold gasket cracks across the ports, and with the inlet manifold being pressurised by the turbo, oil is blown out through the cracks and plasters the side of the block. Not serious, not hard to fix, but very messy if you leave it for long.

Top end oil leaks
The 200 TDi has no fewer than eight rubber seals on the rocker cover - three conical seals under the securing bolts, an 'O' ring on the oil separator, half-moon seal at each end of the head, gasket between rocker cover and head, and an oil seal in the filler cap. All these seals harden with age and leak. On the 300 the half-moon seals were deleted, and the conical seals replaced with rubber rings on the head bolts. I have seen TDis that were leaking enough oil onto the exhaust manifold to constitute a fire hazard. If your engine is leaking oil onto the head, change all the seals - they are not expensive. The half-moon seals benefit from a small amount of RTV sealant in the groove to help them seal properly, but there should be no need to use any kind of sealant on the rocker cover gasket.

Turbo failures
The Garrett T25 turbocharger is a durable old beast and can easily do 200,000 miles or more on a well-maintained engine, but failure is not unknown. Remove the air intake pipe, grasp the end of the impeller and check for play. A little side to side movement is normal, but there should be no fore and aft play. Some oil mist on the inside of the intercooler and pipework is acceptable, but if liquid oil is accumulating in the pipework, or the vehicle emits blue smoke from the exhaust when accelerating, the turbo is probably past its best. In the end the bearings will collapse, destroying the seals and allowing oil to be pumped into the engine. Diesels run very well on hot engine oil, your engine will run away and eat itself. A badly worn turbo will often whistle loudly, especially once the bearings have worn enough for the impeller blades to catch on the housing and get bent out of shape.
The wastegate can seize shut, especially on engines that have been left standing. This leads to excessive boost pressure which is not good for the life of your engine. You should be able to move the wastegate arm against the spring-loaded actuator with a pair of pliers. If seized, you can normally detach the actuator and work the arm back and forth until it moves freely. The diaphragm in the actuator can split, as can the pipes that run from there to the injection pump, resulting in a loss of power as the injection pump is no longer able to increase fuelling in response to turbo boost. And very occasionally the bearing for the wastegate arm will move in the housing so that the wastegate flap no longer lines up with the port it is supposed to cover, resulting in no turbo boost at all.
Turbo boost can be measured by plumbing a boost gauge into the actuator pipework, and adjusted using the threaded adjuster on the actuator pushrod.

Timing belt misalignment (300TDi)
Almost unknown on the 200TDi, very common on older 300s. The timing case is not strong enough and can be distorted if the precise sequence is not followed when building up the engine and fitting the injection pump. This puts the injection pump pulley very fractionally out of true, and the belt then rubs against the shoulder on the tensioner. It gradually wears until it is about half its original width, then breaks, often at only half the recommended change interval.
Land Rover recognised this problem quite early in the 300 TDi's life and introduced two modification kits, depending on the exact age of the engine. One includes a new timing case, and a redesigned tensioner, idler and crank pulley. The other consists of just the tensioner, idler and pulley. Not all engines were affected, and there are still a fair few 300s running the early tensioner setup with no problems. The only way to be sure is to remove the timing cover and have a look inside. If the timing case is full of black fluff and one edge of the belt has been worn away, you have an alignment problem. For more information click here.

Loose crankshaft pulley bolt
The bolt at the front of the crankshaft is done up to a high torque and Loctited for good measure. To remove and refit it (when changing the timing belt) you need a crankshaft locking tool. People try to do the job without, and as a result the bolt is not sufficiently tightened. They usually don't bother with Loctite either. So the bolt comes loose. The front pulley and the toothed pulley for the cambelt start to move back and forth on the crankshaft and very quickly wear away the locating keys, and chew up the grooves in the crankshaft nose that the keys sit in. Usually by this stage the engine is running very badly due to the timing being well out, but if left long enough the key shears, valves hit pistons, clatter clatter bang and you might be looking at a new engine (although more often it just bends the pushrods into strange shapes).
If the damage to the keyways is only very slight you may get away with new keys and pulleys and plenty of Loctite, but I have seen a few engines where there is not enough left of the keyway to hold the key in position, and that means a new crankshaft.

Injection pump failures
Both the 200 and 300 use a Bosch VE rotary injection pump. This is a strong, proven unit fitted to countless millions of vehicles. However, it is not immune from problems. A few years ago there was a spate of pump failures where the internal components started to break up, filling the pump with fragments of metal. This was attributed to poor quality supermarket diesel with inadequate lubricating properties. Usually the first sign of trouble was an engine that continued running when the engine was switched off, due to the plunger on the stop solenoid being jammed with small metal fragments. There are likely to be a few pumps still about which are damaged, but not enough to stop them from running. So if you have an engine that will not stop when switched off, take a good look inside when you remove the stop solenoid. Any metal fragments are bad news.
More recently, and coinciding with the peak of the great biodiesel craze, I had a spate of pump failures due to serious corrosion of the internal parts. Something sitting in a bath of diesel should not rust, and the only possible cause I can think of is badly-processed biodiesel or cheap vegetable oil with a high water content. I haven't seen one of these failures for a while now, but it has made me very wary of recommending the use of vegetable oil (either virgin or recycled). A reconditioned pump at £600 will take a big chunk out of the cost saving on the fuel.

Vacuum pump failures (300TDi)
The 200 TDi uses a vane type rotary pump to power the brake servo, driven off the end of the oil pump drive. This is exactly the same unit used on the older 2.5 engines and near enough unbreakable. Loss of servo assistance on a 200 TDi is much more likely to be a failed servo than a faulty pump. The 300 however uses a Wabco plunger type pump driven off the camshaft, and these pumps are a pain. Two main problems: firstly the end cover works loose (it is riveted on) leading to oil leaking around the cover plate. Secondly the internals often wear, giving a regular ticking sound which increases with engine speed and sounds a bit like a misadjusted valve rocker. Eventually the internal wear becomes great enough for the pump to stop working, and they aren't cheap. There was a duff batch of OEM pumps released onto the market last year which tended to fail after about 30 miles, but hopefully they should all have been recalled by now.

Drive belt noise (300TDi)
The 300 TDi uses a single flat multi-ribbed 'serpentine' belt to drive the cooling fan, water pump, power steering pump and alternator. It has a spring-loaded self adjusting tensioner. On older 300s it is not uncommon for the belt to make a 'chirping' noise, especially at low speeds, due to slight misalignment of the pulleys. The two most likely causes are: 1. Worn tensioner bearing - can sometimes (but not always) be detected by removing the tensioner and spinning the pulley. Spraying white grease into the bearing may temporarily cure the problem. 2. Worn cooling fan hub bearing. This bearing is built into the timing cover and is non-replaceable. When it wears you have to replace the whole cover which is Genuine Parts only, and expensive. There should be no side to side play in the fan hub - if it waggles about the bearing is shot.

Cooling fan viscous coupling failure
Both 200 and 300 have a viscous coupling built into the cooling fan, and these fail with age, resulting in a tendency to overheat in heavy traffic. With the engine hot and stopped, if you can spin the fan freely with no resistance the viscous coupling is shot. It is screwed onto the drive pulley with a left-handed thread and needs a special spanner to remove.

Water pump failure
The 200 TDi has a robust, old-fashioned water pump which will eventually wear out - either the bearings fail (check for side to side play in the pulley) or the seals go (water leaks from around the spindle). The 300 TDi has a smaller, cheaply made pump which suffers from the same problems, but it is also not unknown for the impeller to fall off the spindle. If you have an overheating problem with no obvious cause, it is worth removing the water pump to check that the impeller is still attached.

Valve stem cap failures
Both 200 and 300 have caps on top of the valve stems to reduce wear on the ends of the valve rockers. At high mileages, and especially if valve clearances are too wide, the valve stem can punch the centre out of the cap, resulting in slight loss of power and a loud tapping noise from under the rocker cover. Caps can be replaced without having to remove the rocker shaft - just loosen the adjusting screw until there is enough room to extract the remains of the broken cap and pop in a new one.



Routine servicing
Oil and filter change - every 6,000 miles. Oil capacity is around 6.7 litres. These engines are old fashioned and not especially fussy about oil - a good quality 15/40 mineral oil will be fine. Look for an API classification of CH or greater - lower spec oils are not suitable for the high temperatures generated within the turbocharger and will tend to degrade and turn to black tar.
Air and fuel filters - every 12,000 miles. The fuel filter housing has a 10mm headed screw for bleeding, and there is a priming lever on the lift pump. Note that the priming lever will only work when the pump actuator ois on the heel of the cam lobe. You need to turn the engine by hand using a socket on the crank pulley bolt, while operating the priming lever until you feel some resistance. If you manage to turn the engine through two full revolutions without finding any point where the priming lever works, the linkage inside the lift pump has broken - not uncommon, and you will need to replace the lift pump. Pump the priming lever until diesel emerges from the bleed screw without air bubbles, then tighten the bleed screw.
Valve clearances - every 12,000 miles. Clearance should be 0.20 mm on inlet and exhaust valves. Set the clearances using the 'rule of nine': turn the engine until number 1 valve (counted from the front) is fully open, then check valve number 8: 1 + 8 = 9. Turn it further until the next valve is fully open - this will be number 3 valve, so you check the clearance on number 6: 3 + 6 = 9. Keep going until you are back to having number 1 valve fully open, at which point you should have done all eight valves. Look out for broken valve stem caps: if the clearance on one valve is very large, check the condition of the cap and replace if it has punched through. Make sure you replace the rocker cover gasket, half moon seals and the 'O' ring on the cyclonic breather (on the side of the rocker cover) to avoid oil leaks.
Cambelt changes
Covered in more detail here. Recommended change interval is 60,000 miles or 5 years for Defender, 72,000 miles or 6 years for Discovery. However, this depends on what the vehicle is used for. For vehicles used in dusty conditions or regularly subjected to deep wading Land Rover recommend that the belt change interval is halved. I have seen enough TDis with the timing case full of mud to think that this is sound advice. I would also recommend that on any 300TDi, especially one with the earlier tensioner setup, the front cover should be removed for inspection at 30,000 miles to ensure that the belt is not wearing against the tensioner shoulders.
Head gasket replacement
Not difficult if you follow the workshop manual. You will need an angular torque gauge, and the head bolt tightening sequence must be followed precisely. Head bolts can be reused up to five times according to Land Rover, but should be replaced if they show any signs of damage or corrosion. Cylinder head should be carefully inspected for cracks especially between the valves, and checked with a straight edge for signs of warping. If in doubt, have it skimmed. If the engine has been pressurising the cooling system you might also want to have the head pressure tested for internal cracks. Use a good quality (Elring) head gasket, and ensure the faces of head and block are absolutely clean and smooth. The head gasket should be fitted dry with no sealant of any kind, and make sure you fit it the right way up... There should be a hollow locating dowel at each end of the block - these are quite brittle and often crack. Replace if damaged or missing.
If the head has been skimmed, ensure that you slacken off all the valve adjusters before bolting down the rocker shaft, otherwise valves might contact pistons. Be careful when doing up the front rocker shaft bolt as the thread in the head is much shorter than on the other bolts. Tighten the bolts progressively, half a turn at a time, to avoid the risk of breaking the shaft.
There are three different thicknesses of head gasket, market with one, two or three holes punched in the outer edge. Three hole is the thickest and most common. The correct procedure is to measure the piston height above the block at top dead centre for each piston, using a feeler gauge and straight edge, then select the appropriate gasket. If in doubt, fit a 3 hole gasket - the worst that can happen is a very slight reduction in compression which might cost you a couple of horsepower. Too thin a gasket and the pistons will contact the head when the engine gets hot.
On the Defender 200TDi engine, if you have removed the thermostat housing from the head, make sure you refit it BEFORE bolting the head down on the block. One of the housing bolts is completely inaccessible with the head fitted.
Crankshaft rear oil seal
If your engine is leaking oil from the bottom of the flywheel housing, most likely the crankshaft rear oil seal has failed. On the 200TDi the seal carrier is built into the flywheel housing - on the 300 it has its own carrier which bolts into the block. Either way the flywheel will need to come off, which means either removing the engine, or sliding the gearbox backwards on a transmission jack to gain access. On the 200 the flywheel housing will need to be removed to allow the old seal to be knocked out from behind with a chisel.
200 seal fitting: Clean all traces of sealant from the housing, then press the new seal (ERR2532) in carefully, ideally using a hydraulic press. You will need a very large ring to distribute the pressure evenly - an old Defender 2.5 water pump pulley will do the job if you grind a bit off the outer edge to reduce the diameter. Don't try and knock the new seal in with a drift or blunt chisel - the outer casing is very fragile and you will split the inner lip of the seal.
Early 200 flywheel housings had a shallow recess around the back of the seal carrier and were glued to teh block with RTV sealant. This was soon replaced with a gasket which is fitted dry. If you have the early type of flywheel housing, Land Rover recommend using a gasket (ERR1440) and filling the recess with RTV sealant. The gasket tends to set hard and is very time consuming to scrape off the vack of the block - you need to remove every last bit to ensure the new gasket seats correctly. Good quality gaskets are grey on one side, brick red on the other and have beads of sealant already applied - use one of these, not the cheapo grey plain paper gaskets.
The new seal (whether 200 or 300) should have a plastic guide which fits over the end of the crankshaft to prevent damage to the seal. Make sure the flywheel housing (seal carrier on 300s) goes on square, and tighten the bolts slowly and progressively to pull the seal over the end of the crank. Once it is in place the guide will pop out and can be thrown away. Make sure the flywheel bolts are cleaned and coated with thread locker - otherwise oil will creep up the threads and contaminate the clutch.
Engine overhaul
These are simple, old-fashioned engines held together with lots of bolts, and can be stripped down to a bare block without too much trouble. Provided the cylinder bores do not have a wear ridge at the top, and the crank bearings are not down to the copper-coloured backing metal, you will often get away with just new piston rings and shells. Before stripping the bottom end, check that all four pistons protrude very slightly from the top of the block at top dead centre: If the crown of one piston sits slightly lower than the others, the connecting rod on that cylinder is bent (usually due to the engine taking in water while wading). Check that none of the camshaft bearings have moved (the oil holes should line up exactly with the holes in the block. Inspect the nose of the crankshaft carefully, ensuring that the keyways are undamaged, and check that the rear crank seal has not worn a groove in the crankshaft, which will prevent the new seal from sealing properly. The 200TDi uses the same crank as the old 2.5NA and TD engines, the 300 crank is different.
You will need a pair of guides to avoid damage to the cork 'T' seals when refitting the rear main bearing cap. I use a couple of pieces of steel angle, bolted to the block and bent out very slightly at the top. New piston rings need to be fitted the right way up, with gaps positioned as per the workshop manual. There is an arrow stamped on each piston crown which should point to the front of the block when the piston is fitted.
If fitting new piston rings it is important to use a honing tool or glaze-buster to break up the shiny glazed surface of the bores. Otherwise the rings will not bed in properly and the engine will burn oil. If new pistons are required the cylinders can be bored up to +0.020" - beyond this they will need to be fitted with steel liners to take them back to standard size. Crankshafts can be reground down to -0.010".
On the 200 engine it is important to make sure that the rear edge of the block stiffener is exactly flush with the rear edge of the block. The stiffener does not have locating dowels, so you need to use a straight edge and double-check the location before doing up all the bolts.
Make sure you fit the tappet slides the right way round (the forward facing side has an 'F' cast into it). Use thread locker on the oil pump bolts, camshaft retaining plate bolts and the camshaft pulley centre bolt.
Tuning
Start with the basics - ensure that the injection pump timing is spot on, the pump and injectors are in good order, valve clearances correct, wastegate not sticking open, turbo vanes not damaged and no splits in any of the intercooler hoses. The 200 and 300TDi left the factory in a fairly conservative state of tune, and as many people have discovered, you can get more power by adjusting the maximum boost pressure and playing with the fuelling on the injection pump. Land Rover did pretty much this on the 300TDi with automatic transmission, giving 122 bhp against 111 for the manual version. There is plenty of information on the Internet which I will not repeat here. Just be aware that if you get it wrong, the consequences might be bad. I have seen a few engines with bore wear caused by overfuelling, and a couple where attempts to adjust boost and fuelling have actually left the engine producing less power than standard. Beyond simple tweaks you might be looking at an uprated intercooler for a few more horses: after that it starts getting expensive - gas flowed head, larger valves, bigger turbo etc.
Later 300TDis have exhaust gas recirculation to reduce emissions. This system can be problematic and tends to clog the air intake with oily carbon deposits. The engine will pass MoT emissions without it, so many people blank off the EGR valve on the manifold - kits are available to do this.
Conversions and retrofits
Almost from the day the 200 TDi was launched, people started fitting them into older Land Rovers. Land Rover themselves offered a 'TDi in a box' kit, containing a brand new engine and everything needed to fit it into a pre-1990 Ninety or One Ten, down to the last nut and bolt. One of my customers has a 1985 Ninety with a plaque under the bonnet showing it was thus converted in 1993 - that would have been a lot of money to spend on an eight year old vehicle at the time.
Whether you go for 200 or 300 power for your conversion will come down to two things - engine availability, and ease of fitment. A 200 will fit in place of any of the four cylinder Land Rover petrol or diesel engines, usually using the same mounts. A 300 will normally need new mounts to be welded on. Brief summary of what is possible:
Series II or III - Discovery 200 engine fits using the Series engine mounts, flywheel housing needs modifying to fit bellhousing. Disco turbo fouls chassis rail on 109 inch vehicles - use 300 turbo and manifold, or convert as a 200Di (non turbo). Defender 200 engine requires modification to offside engine mount: exhaust manifold fouls steering box on left hand drive vehicles. 300 engine needs new engine mounts welding to chassis, and flywheel housing swapping for earlier 2.5 NA or TD item. For 6 cylinder vehicles you will have to swap the gearbox bellhousing for a 4 cylinder one and fabricate new engine mounts.
Ninety / One Ten (4 cyl) - Defender 200 engine is a drop-in swap, Disco 200 needs flywheel housing mods and a fair bit of plumbing work (click here for details). Turbo on Disco engine may foul steering shaft on left hand drive vehicles. 300 engine needs new engine mounts welding to chassis, and flywheel housing swapping for earlier 2.5 NA or TD item.
Ninety / One Ten V8 (5 speed) - either use the 300TDi engine and Defender 300 TDi (R380) gearbox (will need new engine mounts) or fitting kit from M&D Engineering to marry the 300 TDi to the LT85 gearbox.
One Ten V8 (4 speed) - use 300 TDi engine with fitting kit from M&D Engineering, or else convert to 5 speed using Defender 300 TDi gearbox and transfer box - will need new floors, seatbox, transmission tunnel, gearbox mounts, propshafts, and new engine mounts fabricated and welded to chassis. Fitting a 200 TDi in place of a V8 is not easy if you want to keep the original gearbox.
109 V8 (Stage One) - 300 TDi engine with fitting kit from M&D should work, but I don't know anyone who has tried this.
Quick note on gearboxes: you might be tempted to use the 5 speed box from a Discovery, especially if you have bought a complete Disco as a donor. This is not easy. The Defender box is 'long stick' configuration with the gear lever well forward: the Disco box is 'short stick' and if you try to fit one of these to a Defender the gear lever will stick up through the middle of the seat box. Converting an LT77 or R380 gearbox from short stick to long stick configuration involves pulling the whole thing apart with the aid of various specialist tools.
The Disco transfer box on the other hand is pretty much a straight swap for the Defender. Most Defender transfer boxes are 1.410 ratio which works pretty well. Some early petrol vehicles, and many military One Tens, have a 1.667 box which is far too low geared for TDi power unless you are running absolutely massive tyres or do a lot of heavy towing in mountainous places. The Disco transfer box is 1.2 ratio. This gives much quieter and more relaxed cruising, but at the expense of acceleration and towing capacity. It works fine on most Defenders, but I would not recommend it for heavily laden One Tens, especially Station Wagons.
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  #12  
Old December 31st, 2014, 12:10 PM
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RX6RCROL
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Matthew Hedrick
1994 D-90 #646
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Quote:
Originally Posted by diesel_jim View Post
Puma diffs are OK, I think there was just a bad batch of 110 rear pinion bearings.
At the LR garage in Nelspruit where I had my 110 worked on, they were replacing the entire rear axle assembly of a Puma 110 at the owners request. They said the Puma 110 came from the factory with a weaker Range Rover rear axle?? Don't know if this is true or not but, the owner of that Puma wanted a Salisbury rear end.
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  #13  
Old December 31st, 2014, 12:14 PM
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Ohlins
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RX6RCROL View Post
At the LR garage in Nelspruit where I had my 110 worked on, they were replacing the entire rear axle assembly of a Puma 110 at the owners request. They said the Puma 110 came from the factory with a weaker Range Rover rear axle?? Don't know if this is true or not but, the owner of that Puma wanted a Salisbury rear end.
Yip.....standard 110's these days come without a Salisbury axle...no doubt more cost savings that aren't past onto the customer....


I know...cynical....






.

------ Follow up post added December 31st, 2014 11:17 AM ------

"Wonder what rear diff the Turkish armored cars used?"

At a guess I'd say probably standard Salisbury axles....my old work,V8 Tangi's had just this and they were armoured also....never had an axle fail front or rear in my time.




.
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200tdi Ex British Army 110 Hardtop 139142kms
2.286 Petrol Series 3 Lightweight 75,043kms
3.2DiD Pajero 266,000kms
Yamaha XTZ660Z Ténéré 58112kms
Gas Gas 300EC Ohlins Enduro Moto.
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  #14  
Old December 31st, 2014, 12:20 PM
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John B.
1991 Defender 90, 200TDI
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Landy_Andy View Post
Isn't it funny how once a thread starts it sort of takes on a life of it's own... even an old one like this. The OP only ever made the one post and hasn't been here since then....
Yes, people are strange. The original post is from a a year and a half ago. The whole discussion today has nothing to do with the original question. Really just looks like some new guy came on here randomly replying to an old post.
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  #15  
Old December 31st, 2014, 12:25 PM
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Ohlins
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Red90 View Post
Yes, people are strange. The original post is from a a year and a half ago. The whole discussion today has nothing to do with the original question. Really just looks like some new guy came on here randomly replying to an old post.

Robbie Burns....

"There's nothing stranger than folk"



and LR drivers......










.
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200tdi Ex British Army 110 Hardtop 139142kms
2.286 Petrol Series 3 Lightweight 75,043kms
3.2DiD Pajero 266,000kms
Yamaha XTZ660Z Ténéré 58112kms
Gas Gas 300EC Ohlins Enduro Moto.
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  #16  
Old December 31st, 2014, 12:48 PM
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Matthew Greenspan
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Originally Posted by Red90 View Post
Yes, people are strange. The original post is from a a year and a half ago. The whole discussion today has nothing to do with the original question. Really just looks like some new guy came on here randomly replying to an old post.
You guys could just delete the first part of the thread and change the name to something else...
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